Qu茅 son los Casos de Uso

Los diagramas de casos de uso son importantes para modelar el comportamiento de un sistema, un subsistema o una clase.聽 Est谩n formados por tres elementos: actores (qui茅n interacciona con el sistema), casos de uso (lo que hace el sistema) y sus relaciones (interacciones entre actores y sistema).

Este tipo de diagrama suele ser uno de los primeros que realizamos en el modelado, pues indica la funcionabilidad que dar谩 el programa a los actores (personas o subsitemas) que lo usen.

 

Las relaciones entre casos de uso

 

En una aplicaci贸n son varios los actores que hacen uso de la misma, y adem谩s pueden realizar varias acciones. Por ello debemos indicar que elementos se comunican con otros y que tipo de relaci贸n tienen entre ellos.

Las relaciones entre casos de uso y/o actores son las siguientes:

Comunicaci贸n

Es la relaci贸ncom煤n, con ella indicamos que puede hacer cada uno de los actores. Se representa con una l铆nea.

Extensi贸n

Usaremos la relaci贸n de extensi贸n cuando una acci贸n derive de otra, es decir cuando al ejecutarla necesite o accione otra de las funciones del sistemas. Por ejemplo; si tenemos la acci贸n de listar productos en una aplicaci贸n, al realizarla podemos hacer que los ordene por el precio. Lo cual es otro de los casos de uso del sistema.

Inclusi贸n

La inclusi贸n es cuando un caso de uso tiene que preceder a otro, o ejecutarse con la acci贸n que queremos realizar. Por ejemplo, si queremos indicar una acci贸n de alta de clientes, antes de esto debemos identificarnos en el sistemas (si no se ha hecho ya).

Generalizaci贸n

Expresa el mismo concepto de herencia que existe entre clases. 聽Un caso de uso puede heredar el comportamiento de otro. En este caso los casos de uso o actores 鈥渉ijos鈥 son una especializaci贸n del padre. Este tipo de relaciones deber铆an evitarse a la hora del desarrollo pues producen cierta confusi贸n.

 

Caso pr谩ctico I

 

Imagina que queremos crear un sistema para gestionar el uso de coches compartidos entre usuarios. Tenemos a los propietarios de los veh铆culos, que dan de alta un veh铆culo y seleccionan los usuarios que podr谩n hacer uso del mismo.

Los usuarios pueden solicitar cambiar de veh铆culo cuando quieran, pudiendo consultar las peticiones de cambios de otros usuarios.

Los usuarios solo podr谩n consultar y pedir cambios de los veh铆culos a los que el propietario le diese permiso.

 

 

Caso pr谩cticoII

 

Ahora queremos crear un juego donde participan dos jugadores on-line. Cuando desean jugar uno de ellos tiene que crear la partida, mientras que el otro se une a ella. El objetivo del juego es disparar al contrario. Si uno de los dos jugadores acierta, la partida termina.

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